1. Martha has an autosomal, recessive hereditary condition known as brachydactyly which results in short fingers and toes. It is not life threatening. Martha marries Frank. Frank has a brother with brachydactyly- in fact the mutation is the same one that Martha has. What is the probability that Frank and Marthas first child will be a girl with normal fingers and toes?2. Progress in genetics relies on studies with model organisms. In particular, the fruit fly and Nematodes have taught us a good deal about the role of various kinds of genes in development.Briefly describe one major idea or principle about organism development that has come from studying each of these organisms.Humans are, of course, more complicated than either of these organisms. What allows us to think that at least some of the rules of development learned from these model organisms apply to human beings?3. DNA sequencing and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) share similarities.In what ways are they similar?What are two major differences in the techniques?